Lakes of the world and their classification
The most important characteristics of lakes . expressed in digits — the volume of water contained in, surface area, maximum depth and average its value. In directories, as a rule, lead only area and maximum depth; volume of water is in the encyclopedias articles, however not for each lake; and as a consequence not all realistic to calculate the average depth. Setting the water surface, the lakes listed below in the special needs no comment: the top ten – the lake, the area is not subject to changes. But, for example, lake Chad, is in terms of sharp changes, depending on the season of the Doges, because of the fairly flat banks, during the year it increased more than twice over the area. Changes significantly and the lake Balkhash: 22 to 17 thousand sq. km Eyre, the largest lake in Australia, in the season of high humidity goes on the nineteenth place in the area of a water mirror in the world (up to 15 thousand sq. km.), and in the dry season disappears altogether, turning into marsh.
Classification of lakes by area (thousand sq km). Caspian sea: 376, Upper (North America.): 82,4, Victoria (Africa): 68, Huron (North America.): 59,6, Michigan (North America.): 58, Tanganyika (Africa): 34, Baikal (Asia): 31,5, Malawi (Africa): 30,8, The Great Bear (North America.): 30,2, Great Slave (North America.): 28,6. Classification of lakes by depth (m). Baikal (Asia) 1620, Tanganyika (Africa) 1470, the Caspian sea (Eurasia) 1024, Malawi (Africa) 706, Ysyk-Kol (Asia) 668, Upper (North America.) 393, Titicaca (South America.) 304, Michigan (North America.) 281, Maracaibo (South America.) 250, Ontario (North America.) 236.
In klassifikatsii the deepest lakes in the world need to be very careful. In geographical encyclopedia 1988 published a list of the largest lakes on the planet, it shows the maximum depth and area. Inscribed in it only lakes with an area greater than 3000 square kilometers, is just one of them and made the deepest table, together with an indication on the map. However, there are lakes, small in area but with serious depth, information about them is taken in the same dictionary, only the other volume from 1989. For example, lake Sarez in the Pamirs, up to 500 meter depth with an area of around 80 square kilometers.
The dead sea with an area of 1050 sq. km. (approximately equal to Moscow) claims a place in the top ten with its 356 th meters. Karstic lake Ohrid on the border of Albania and Macedonia has a surface area – 348 sq. km and the lowest point at 285 metres, is the deepest lake in Europe. Famous lake of the Alps – lake Constance and lake Geneva is 538 and 582 km, and kV, respectively, with maximum depths of 252 and 310 meters. Mongolian lake Khubsugul in its lowest point is 238 m and 2620 square kilometer area, it is part of the Baikal rift, as its basin is a structural continuation of the basin of lake Baikal.
In other words, to find at least a dozen of the largest lakes in the world by depth is not so easy . Some karst collapse, unremarkable area that can hide a frightening abyss of water. Classification of the top ten lakes in terms of salinity does not make sense. The highest salinity of the Dead sea, the value itself is not constant, in different periods, it varies from 260 – 270% to 310 ppm. And, as such, may overlap other features, the small lakes, where deposits of self-deposited salt. An interesting property is the mark of the water level of the lake above sea level. Lake Titicaca is considered the world’s largest high-altitude lake (edge – 3812 m, the absolute), a lake in the Eastern Pamir Karakul less depth and size, though its edge and is situated at an altitude of 4000 m On the Tibetan plateau there are lakes, with such a large area that they draw in the world Atlas. For some the benchmark is in the region of five thousand meters. If to take into account is the small karst lake, they may detect at any height where the level of the snow line and height of mountain ranges and ridges.